Cement is the most important ingredient in concrete. It acts as a binding agent to hold together the various ingredients of concrete, including water, aggregate (sand and gravel), and admixtures. The production of cement is a complex process that begins with mining and then grinding raw materials (limestone and clay) into a fine powder. This powder is then mixed with water, sand, and gravel to form concrete. Turkey is one of the world's leading producers of cement, with an annual production capacity of over 60 million metric tons. The majority of Turkey's cement production takes place in the southwest of the country, near the city of Denizli. Turkish cement is exported to over 100 countries around the world, making it a major player in the global cement market. Some of the world's largest cement companies, such as Lafarge, Cemex, and HeidelbergCement, have operations in Turkey. These companies have helped to make Turkey one of the most technologically advanced cement producers in the world.